The Shwa script includes 14 vowels and 2 marks for vowels : all the other letters are consonants, including some semivowels. We'll present the vowels and semivowels on this page along with a few other letters, and the other consonants on the following pages, so you can see how it works not just for English but for all the other languages. We'll use some technical terms (in italics), but you don't have to remember them.
Vowels differ from each other in five main parameters :
We'll discuss the last two traits further below. For now, let's talk about the first three.
The Shwa vowel letters fit into a grid based on those parameters. Each letter represents any vowel sound in that range of your mouth - the actual pronunciation varies. Here they are, along with my transcription and the IPA symbols for the sounds in that range (at right is a chart of IPA vowels) :
As you can see, Shwa is much simpler : 14 vowels instead of 28. Shwa doesn't make the fine distinctions that the IPA does. Since you can vary the parameters of vowels freely (unlike consonants), there's usually quite a bit of variation of vowel sounds: between dialects, within a dialect, and even in one person's speech, depending on context. So each Shwa vowel letter represents a broader range of vowel sounds than an IPA symbol does.
In the Shwa grid, the first two columns are front vowels and the last two are back vowels. Within each of those groups, the lefthand column is spread (unrounded), while the righthand column is rounded. Front rounded vowels are usually pronounced with the lips compressed, while the back rounded vowels are usually pronounced with the lips protruded. There are no dedicated letters for central vowels, but the inner columns are usually more central than the outer ones.
Within each column there are closed, mid and open vowels. The two outer columns divide the mid vowels into close-mid and open-mid vowels, so there are four vowels in those two columns. For the other open vowels, the roundedness isn't so important, since when your mouth is open, your lips are both rounded and spread. So for open vowels, the contrast is front, central and back. The a sound in most languages is fairly central, and it's written in Shwa with the a vowel. If there's a contrasting vowel further back in the mouth, it's written with the ah vowel, while a contrasting vowel in the front of the mouth is written with the ae vowel.
The most open vowel in the front rounded column is er, and it does double duty. Very few languages use two mid front rounded vowels.French and Danish are examples. However, this letter is also used for the rhotic mid vowel. It's rare, but two languages in which it occurs - Chinese and English - are the world's most spoken languages!
Three of these vowels don't occur in English, but they aren't difficult to pronounce :
The sound in the middle of the IPA chart - the upside-down e - is called schwa (that was one of the inspirations for the name Shwa). We write it eh. It's pronounced with your mouth completely relaxed, and often represents any lazy sound more than a specific mid back spread vowel.
The ih vowel does occur in English, but only in unstressed syllables. For instance, we use it for the vowel in the last syllable of bottle or button. Compare roses, which has the ih vowel, with Rosa's, which has a schwa. To pronounce ih, say the vowel of book or put, but with your lips spread.
The ih letter is also used for vowels that have been reduced almost to zero. In Chinese, it's used for the apical sounds in si and shi (which used to be written sz and shr in the Yale romanization). In Japanese, it's used for voiceless i u. Czech, Slovak, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Sanskrit have syllables "without vowels", in which l or r plays the role of vowel. Shwa spells them using the ih letter, followed by the consonant. The long versions of these, as in Slovak and Sanskrit, use a Long mark (which you'll meet below).
Here are the fourteen Shwa vowels, with some examples, from English and from languages without long vowels :
|i ɪ||i||itchy, bit, kit, ship, rip, dim, spirit||si||piso||pira|
|ɛ||e||elbow, bet, dress, step, ebb, hem, terror||sais||perla||German ä|
|æ||ae||apple, bat, trap, bad, cab, ham, arrow
American bath, staff, clasp, dance
|y ʏ||ue||su||German and Turkish ü, Cantonese yu|
|oe||ceux||German and Turkish ö, Cantonese eu|
|ɚ ɝ œ ɶ||er||butter, early, nurse, hurt, term, work||Chinese èr|
|ɨ ɯ||ih||button, bottom, bottle||Turkish ı, Russian ы, Polish y, Romanian î, Welsh u|
|ə ɐ||eh||onion, strut, cub, rub, hum, the||ce||Romanian ä|
|a||a||almond, palm, calm, bra, father,
American lot, stop, rob, swan
British bath, staff, clasp, dance
|u ʊ||u||cookie, book, foot, full, look, could||sous||pujo||buco|
|ɔ||o||awful, bought, thought, taut, hawk, broad,
American cloth, cough, long, laurel, origin
|ɑ||ah||British otter, bother, lot, stop, rob, swan,
cloth, cough, long, laurel, origin
All the shapes are written from left to right, and the closed ones are written starting at the top and continuing in a counterclockwise direction. Vowels are normally written low, but are written high when they're stressed or carry a high tone.
French, Catalan, Italian and Portuguese all distinguish between closed-mid and open-mid vowels, as do most of the Germanic languages (which we'll discuss below) :
An open-mid front rounded œ vowel is very rare : as far as I know, it only contrasts with its closed-mid sister in French and before nasals in Danish, and it's even being lost in those two languages, where few speakers make distinctions between French jeûne and jeune, or between Danish synds and søns. When you do need to write the distinction, write the open-mid vowel with the er letter. We also use it to spell the Dutch diphthong now spelled ui, and in some other Germanic languages.
Polish, Portuguese and French, for example, have nasal vowels. In Shwa, these are written by appending a Nasal Suffix to the corresponding oral vowel. The Nasal Suffix is a slender letter whose bottom is a triangle with the point upwards, like your nose, in contrast to y, which points downwards like your chin.
Here are some examples from French, contrasted with the oral vowel alone and the oral vowel followed by the letter n :
When needed, I'll transcribe the Nasal suffix as a tilde ~, as in ã õ.
Syllabic nasals are vowels made with your mouth completely closed. For example, in Cantonese and Fukienese, there are syllabic nasals as in m and ng. In Shwa, they're written with a letter we call the Hum, a triangle pointing up. In contrast with the Nasal Suffix mentioned above, the Hum has no stem: it's a vowel.
A semivowel is a vowel being used as a consonant. The four high vowels and the er vowel all have corresponding semivowels, although not all of them are used in English. Here they are :
In addition, Shwa has three glides that represent directions rather than positions:
Here are four of these semivowels in use in Bengali:
|অয়ি ai||অয়ে ae||অয়ো ao||অয়ু au|
The central vowel of a syllable is never written with a semivowel, but onglides and offglides always are, so that there's only one vowel for each syllable. For example, the Chinese word 水 shŭi (water) is written as shwĕy, not shuĕi, shuĕy or shwĕi.
Many languages feature diphthongs, which are vowels that move as they are pronounced. In Shwa, as in most scripts, they're written using letters for the starting and ending positions. But in Shwa, only one of these two letters is a vowel - the other is a semivowel.
If the ending position is more prominent, they're called rising diphthongs, and we write them with a semivowel onglide before the vowel. Spanish has a full set :
|ye||ie as in tierra|
|ya||ia as in diablo|
|yo||io as in dios|
|yu||iu as in viuda|
|wo||uo as in cuota|
|wa||ua as in cuadro|
|we||ue as in fuego|
|wi||ui as in buitre|
If the starting position is more prominent, they're called falling diphthongs, and we write them with a semivowel offglide after the vowel. We'll discuss them in two groups, starting with the long vowels.
If the offglide is near the vowel, in other words if your mouth doesn't move much between the vowel and the semivowel, we call the diphthong a long vowel. That's the case when the semivowel matches the vowel.
The mid vowels all form long vowels using the semivowel form of the closed vowel in the same column :
Sometimes these sounds really are diphthongs, like English ate, while in other cases they're actually longer versions of the short vowel, with no movement. In Dutch, zee beu boot are diphthongs in the Netherlands and long vowels in Flanders, but in Shwa they're written alike. We never write them with the hy or hw glides, since they don't move sideways.
All the open vowels use the Yawn to form long vowels:
The result is that every short vowel has a corresponding long vowel:
We could even write a long Hum using the Nasal Suffix as an offglide.
The long vowels are often written in an abbreviated form : without the bottom of the semivowel. The remaining stem of the semivowel, a short vertical line, is called the Long mark - I'll transcribe it with a colon :. In Alphabetic gait, it's written high for high vowels, low for low vowels, so it's kind of an honorary vowel.
Long vowels are almost always written with the Long mark : we almost always write i: u: instead of iy uw. The main exception is when the next letter is another vowel. In that case, we keep the semivowel.
Some fonts include ligatures combining a vowel and its Long mark into one glyph. There are a variety of styles you should recognize. Here are some :
In some languages, the Long mark is used to indicate tense vowels, or vowels pronounced with advanced tongue root. These aren't necessarily longer than other vowels, but the three features (long, tense, ATR) seem similar and sometimes occur together. As far as I know, no language contrasts two of these features.
When a falling diphthong is not a long vowel, I'll call it a cross vowel, because it crosses your mouth from one position to another.
Several cross vowels cross to the front of your mouth :
Others cross to the back of your mouth :
Others cross towards the center of your mouth, as in Vietnamese, Khmer, Thai and Irish :
We also use the Yawn even if they cross downwards, but not towards the center, as in Finnish :
Finally, we use the wr semivowel for r-colored diphthongs, as in English, where your tongue drops down at the end of the sound :
Thai has long diphthongs where a long vowel is followed by a cross offglide, as in ยาย. English also features long diphthongs - triphthongs - in words like pyre and power.
Now we're in a position to look at examples that include long and cross vowels. The Germanic languages have some of the largest vowel inventories in the world, so let's look at some of them. Note that mid vowels are usually open-mid when short and close-mid when long.
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