Markup

In addition to the visible letters that you now know, Musa also has markup: codes hidden in the text that control the display of the Musa letters. For example, they may control the gait, the style (bold, italic, ...), the relative size, and so forth.

The world is full of markup languages, most of them much more powerful than Musa's. Musa markup is limited to just a few tags, all expressed as single codepoints in the range E200-E2FF. These tags can't have attributes, so they're even more limited. But they're powerful enough for most meanings, if not for every possible decoration.

Those other markup languages have also evolved to use semantic markup (also known as logical or conceptual markup). Using semantic markup, you might label a quotation as <cite>. But Musa's markup is presentational: it just describes the appearance of the text, for instance labeling it <b> for bold or <i> for italic.

One other interesting difference: SGML languages have specific closing tags for each opening tag. For example, every <div> tag must be closed with a </div> tag. But this conceals a big limitation: only the most recent tag can be closed! The hierarchy of tags forms a LIFO stack; the tags can't overlap. So Musa uses only one closing tag, which closes the last opening tag applied.

The standard Musa keyboard doesn't permit the entry of markup - you have to be using a markup-enabled editor, and so far, there's only one, the English Composer on this website. There, you can mark up your text and translate the result into HTML, the web's markup language. We hope to add output for other markup formats, like OpenDocument, and composers for other languages.

English Composer

The plaintext tags shown below can be used to mark up English text before pasting it. They're enclosed within angle brackets < >. So for example a Strikethrough tag would be displayed as <strikethrough>text</>. If you need to include angle brackets in your text, replace them with &‍lt; &‍gt;.

Musa Markup Codes

ClassCodePlaintext TagSampleHTML equivalent
Styles
E20x
E200</>Closes last tag</span>
E201<bold>Bold<span style="font-weight: bold;">
E202<italic>Italic<span style="font-style: italic;">
E208<under>Underline<span style="text-decoration: underline;">
E209<over>Overline<span style="text-decoration: overline;">
E20A<through>Strikethrough<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">
Layout
E21x
E210<comment>Comment<span style="display: none;">
E211<line>Alone on Line<span style="display: block;">
E212<indent> Indented<span style="margin-left: 5%;">
E213<header>Header<span style="display: block; font-size: 141%; line-height: 150%; margin-top: 1rem;">
E214<title>Title<span style="display: block; text-align: center; font-size: 200%; line-height: 150%; margin-top: 1rem;">
E215<paragraph>Paragraph<span style="display: block; margin-top: 1rem;">
E216<superscript>TextSuperscript<span style="vertical-align: 50%; font-size: 50%;">
E217<subscript>TextSubscript<span style="vertical-align: 0%; font-size: 50%;">
Alignment
E22x
E220<left> Left<span style="text-align: left;">
E221<center>Center<span style="text-align: center;">
E222<right>Right <span style="text-align: right;">
E223<top>Top<span style="vertical-align: top;">
E214<middle>Middle<span style="vertical-align: middle;">
E215<bottom>Bottom <span style="vertical-align: bottom;">
Size
E23x
E230<large>Large
√2x ≈ 141%>
<span style="font-size: 141%; vertical-align: -10%;">
E231<double>Double
2x = 200%>
<span style="font-size: 200%; vertical-align: -15%;">
E232<triple>Triple
2√2x ≈
283%>
<span style="font-size: 283%; vertical-align: -20%;">
E233<quad>Quad
4x =
400%>
<span style="font-size: 400%; vertical-align: -25%;">
E238<small>Small
1/√2x ≈ 71%>
<span style="font-size: 71%; vertical-align: 15%;">
E239<half>Half
1/2x = 50%>
<span style="font-size: 50%; vertical-align: 30%;">
E23A<third>Third
1/2√2x ≈ 36%>
<span style="font-size: 36%; vertical-align: 60%;">
E23B<quarter>Quarter
1/4x = 25%>
<span style="font-size: 25%; vertical-align: 90%;">
Background Color
E24x
E240<clear>Clear Background<span style="background-color: transparent;">
E241<white>White Background<span style="background-color: #FFFFFF;">
E242<pink>Rose Background<span style="background-color: #FF8080;">
E243<yellow>Yellow Background<span style="background-color: #FFFF80;">
E244<lime>Lime Background<span style="background-color: #80FF80;">
E245<cyan>Cyan Background<span style="background-color: #80FFFF;">
E246<azure>Azure Background<span style="background-color: #8080FF;">
E247<magenta>Magenta Background<span style="background-color: #FF80FF;">
E248<gray>Gray Background<span style="background-color: #808080;">
E249<red>Cherry Background<span style="background-color: #800000;">
E24A<olive>Olive Background<span style="background-color: #808000;">
E24B<emerald>Emerald Background<span style="background-color: #008000;">
E24C<teal>Teal Background<span style="background-color: #008080;">
E24D<blue>Navy Background<span style="background-color: #000080;">
E24E<purple>Purple Background<span style="background-color: #800080;">
E24F<black>Black Background<span style="background-color: #000000;">
Text Color
E25x
E250<blacktext>Black Text<span style="color: #000000;">
E251<redtext>Cherry Text<span style="color: #800000;">
E252<emeraldtext>Emerald Text<span style="color: #008000;">
E253<bluetext>Navy Text<span style="color: #000080;">
E254<graytext>Gray Text<span style="color: #808080;">
E255<yellowtext>Yellow Text<span style="color: #FFFF80;">
E256<cyantext>Cyan Text<span style="color: #80FFFF;">
E257<magentatext>Magenta Text<span style="color: #FF80FF;">
E258<whitetext>White Text<span style="color: #FFFFFF;">
Adjuvant
Fonts
E28x
E280<subtitle><span style="font-family: 'Subtitle Musa Ruby">
E281<tomokana><span style="font-family: 'Tomokana Musa Ruby';">
E282<roman>Roman<span style="font-family: 'Roman Musa Trans';">
E283<ipa>IPA<span style="font-family: 'IPA Musa Trans';">
E284<numeric>Numeric<span style="font-family: 'Numeric Musa Trans';">
E285<pygmalion>Pygmalıon<span style="font-family: 'Pygmalion Musa Diacritic';">
E286<surshery>Surshery<span style="font-family: 'Surshery Musa Diacritic';">
E287<eminem>Eminem<span style="font-family: 'Eminem Musa Markup';">
E288<hentrax><span style="font-family: 'Hentrax Musa Element';">
E289<tartaglia>(not ready yet)<span style="font-family: 'Tartaglia Musa Formula';">
Text Fonts
E29x
E290<dushan><span style="font-family: 'Dushan Musa Alphabet';">
E291<kraljevo><span style="font-family: 'Kraljevo Musa Alphabet';">
E292<taunus><span style="font-family: 'Taunus Musa Ligature';">
E293<yousuf><span style="font-family: 'Yousuf Musa Ligature';">
E294<tharbis><span style="font-family: 'Tharbis Musa Abugida';">
E295<njoya><span style="font-family: 'Njoya Musa Syllabary';">
E296<ramanujan><span style="font-family: 'Ramanujan Musa Akshara';">
E297<zhou><span style="font-family: 'Zhou Musa Fangzi';">
E298<yasuhiro><span style="font-family: 'Yasuhiro Musa Kana';">
E299<penflower>(not ready yet)<span style="font-family: 'Penflower Musa Cursive';">

Common Closing Tag: Not only is this easier to use, but it has a hidden advantage. If, by mistake, you overlap two HTML tags, for example entering A<u>B<i>C</u>D</i>E, it's an HTML syntax error (although many browsers will correct it : ABCDE). But using a common closing tag corrects it automatically: each closing tag closes the last tag.

Size Tags: The factor separating each size is √2, about 141%. A smaller ratio is hard to distinguish; a larger one isn't fine enough. All sizes share the same midline (not baseline).


< Digital Musa Keyboard >


© 2002-2021 The Musa Academy musa@musa.bet 29sep21