Malay is the national language of Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and (with 3 others) Singapore. Since 1972, these countries share the same orthography based on the Roman alphabet, which is generally good except for a few flaws:
Shwa solves all these problems.
Here are the consonants of Malay, with the current letters in black and IPA in green. Foreign sounds are on yellow.
|m m||n n||ny ɲ||ng ŋ|
|p p||t t||c ʧ||k k|
|b b||d d||j ʤ||g g|
|w w||s s||y j||h h|
|l l||r r|
|f f||sy ʃ||kh x|
|v v||z z||' ʔ|
In Malay, the final -ng in prefixes meng- and peng- assimilates to the following consonant, and this is written in Shwa (as it is in the current orthography).
Final k is pronounced as a Catch and written as , while h is pronounced and written as a Break except when between two copies of the same vowel.
The standard languages use 6 vowels, but two more (in pink) are used in some dialects.
|i i||u u|
|e e||e ə||o o|
|e ɛ||a a||o ɔ|
|au aw||ai aj||oi oj|
Malay is written in the Syllabary gait.
Now that you've learned the letters, why don't you try reading a sentence?
|Satu bahasa tidak pernah cukup.|
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