中文 Shwa for Chinese

Chinese has traditionally been written in characters (漢字 hànzì), but now it's also written in simplified characters (简化字 jiǎnhuàzì), bopomofo (注音符號 zhùyīn fúhào), and romanization (like 拼音 pīnyīn). This page will explain how to write it in Shwa (刷字 shuōzì), in both Alphabet and Character gaits.

By Chinese, I mean 中囯话 zhōngguóhuà , also known as 普通话 pǔtōnghuà, 國語 guóyǔ, 華語 huáyǔ, or 汉语 hànyǔ, the national standard language spoken by about two thirds of the Han Chinese in a swath from Manchuria to Yunnan. When written, it's called 中文 zhōngwén or 白话文 báihuàwén. I'm not talking about the Beijing dialect 北京话 běijīnghuà or 北方话 běifānghuà, the old Imperial standard written language, Mandarin or 官話 guānhuà, the Wu (Shanghaiese), Min (Fukienese or Taiwanese), Yue (Cantonese), Kejia (Hakka), Xiang or Gan languages, or any other language of the People's Republic of China, for example Korean, Manchu, Mongolian, Uighur, Tibetan, Miao or Zhuang.

The Han characters are a very old writing system, only 2000 years younger than the very similar Egyptian hieroglyphs. These two are the only writing systems among the world's 50 or so, past and present, to represent meaning directly - all the others represent sound, so that you have to know the language to be able to read. That's not true in Chinese; in fact, the same character can be read in many different ways among the numerous languages that use characters and even within a single language. Most characters include an element that represents a partial or former pronunciation, but it's not important in reading the character, any more than the fact that our letter A once represented the head of an ox is important to reading its sound.

Such a system has both advantages and disadvantages. Among the advantages are that Chinese characters take less space on a page, and they each carry more information than spelled words (although the rate of information transmitted per second in speech or writing is about the same). It has been claimed that because they don't represent sound, readers can read different languages that use them, including past languages, but this is an exaggeration. The opposite claim, that characters have facilitated the divergence of dialects, is also exaggerated.

The most important disadvantage is the difficulty of learning, most of which derives from the sheer number of symbols you need to learn - thousands instead of a few dozen - and from their complexity. Characters also make it much harder to type and typeset text, to develop and use fonts, to look words up in a dictionary or to sort them. They're also difficult to adapt to other languages (the People's Republic of China has about 300 languages). And of course they can't represent pronunciation, neither of foreign names nor of Chinese words. So educational and reference works need another system to convey pronunciation.

Since the 1950s, that role has been played by a romanization called hànyǔ pīnyīn. It uses the English alphabet (with ü and without v) to write similar sounds of Chinese, but uses digraphs and odd readings for other Chinese sounds. For example, q represents a ch sound, while x represents a sh sound. The final -i represents three different sounds, while the finals -ian -iu -ui -un don't sound like they're spelled. Because of these difficulties, pinyin can't be read naturally by readers of any other Roman-alphabet language. But that's also true of English!

One unfortunate side effect of this idiosyncracy is that learning pinyin doesn't help Chinese people learn English or other Roman-alphabet languages. Chinese visitors to Flushing (New York) - the largest Chinatown outside Asia - may be surprised to learn that the borough name Queens doesn't begin with the sound of pinyin que (chüe tɕʰye), but instead with the familiar kw- sound that qu spells in almost every Roman-alphabet language. Another problem with pinyin is that the accents used for tones and the letter ü are not available on most keyboards and fonts - people often use v instead of ü for this reason.

But the main problem of pinyin is not its unusual uses of Roman letters; it's its use of Roman letters! Spelling out pronunciation is a very important function - why should Chinese use an alphabet that is so poorly suited for it? Pinyin requires us to use digraphs like sh ch zh ng, unusual readings like x q c z, ambiguous letters like i, a dieresis over ü, capitalization, and other deficiencies ... to what end? To make Chinese legible to foreigners? To fit Chinese within the limitations of ASCII computers? They achieved neither; they deserve better.

In contrast, the Shwa alphabet has letters for all the sounds of Chinese, including the tones: 22 consonants, 5 semivowels, 11 vowels, and 3 accents. In Shwa, Chinese is usually written in Character gait, which combines all the sounds of a syllable into one block. The arrangement of each block makes these characters easier to distinguish. The rest of this page will explain how it works.

Almost every Chinese syllable fits a neat formula: an initial consonant is followed by a medial semivowel, then a vowel, and finally a coda: a consonant or off-glide (the word coda is the Italian word for "tail"). The whole syllable is also spoken with a tone, which we mark on the vowel. Some of these five elements may be missing or hidden in the written form.


In Chinese, there are 21 initials (声母 shēngmu). Here they are, shown with their pinyin romanizations and their IPA transcriptions.

bp dt zʦ zh jʨ gk
p t cʦʰ chtʂʰ qʨʰ k
ff ss shʂ xɕ hx
mm nn rʐ

The sounds in pink are affricates and sibilants. The sounds in the fourth column (zh ch sh r) are retroflex (laminal post-alveolar), while the sounds in the fifth column (j q x) are (alveolo-)palatal. The letters in all three columns have U-shaped bottoms that kind of look like a tongue. This tongue points down for the alveolars, up for the retroflexes, and sideways for the palatals.

It's also possible for a syllable to have no initial.


The medials form a simple pattern: they are all formed high in the mouth - they're the consonant versions of closed vowels. Two are front semivowels, and two are back semivowels. One of each pair is pronounced with lips rounded; the other with lips spread.

Semivowels front back
spread yj ɰ
round ÿɥ ww

The medial is always there, but it's not always written. It's never written when it's followed by the matching vowel, unless there's no initial : bwu is written bu, but wu is written wu. The ɰ semivowel matches a e o, so it's only written when there's no initial : mɰa is written ma but ɰa is written ɰa.


Before considering the vowels, let's look at the codas. There are five of them:

Codas front back
oral -i -u
nasal -n -ng
rhotic -r


Now we're ready to consider the vowels. There are actually only two of them: mid e and open a. What makes it interesting is that the vowel takes on the characteristics of the semivowel before it and the coda after it. The two vowels have one form for when they're front, another for when they're central, and another for when they're back (for which we use round letters, even though they're not very round in Chinese).

Vowels front central back pinyin
mid ɛ ə ɤ e, o
open æ a ɑ a

Here are the rules for which form each vowel takes in the standard dialect, although you don't have to memorize them - each vowel is simply written as it is pronounced:

It's also possible for a syllable to have no vowel, in which case the semivowel is extended to include its vowel, as in shı, xi, shu and .

The combination of semivowel, vowel and coda is called the final (韻母 yùnmu). Here's a chart showing all the finals of Chinese, in Alphabet gait and in pinyin:

-i -e -ei -ou -en -eng
-a -ai -ao -an -ang
-i -ie -iu -in -ing
-ia -iao -ian -iang
-u -uo -ui -un -ong
-ua -uai -uan -uang
-üe -ün -üong

Pinyin spelling has some variations that Shwa doesn't need :


The only Chinese syllable that doesn't fit this pattern is er, as in the number 2 二 èr.


But when it spells the diminutive suffix 兒 or 儿, it combines with the preceding syllable to produce a rhoticized final: the coda becomes -r and the vowel also changes :

-ir -er -eir -our -enr -engr
-ar -air -aor -anr -angr
-ir -ier -iur -inr -ingr
-iar -iaor -ianr -iangr
-ur -uor -uir -unr -ongr
-uar -uair -uanr -uangr
-ür -üer -ünr -üongr


Shwa also marks the tone. The tones of Chinese are contour tones: it's the change in pitch that counts, not the pitch itself. The five tones are:

level rising dipping falling no tone
1st 2nd 3rd 4th "5th"

The first and third tones use the same accent mark, but it's written over the vowel in 3rd tone. Here are the five tones applied to the vowel a :

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th

The dipping (3rd) tone is pronounced differently and written differently when followed by another tone in the same word. If the following tone is another dipping tone, the first one is written as a low rising tone and the second one is written as a low falling tone. Otherwise, the dipping tone is written as a low falling tone.

   
nǐ hǎo ní hào mǎi yú mài yú

Character Gait

Chinese is normally written in Character gait, in which the elements are arranged to form a square character. The details of Character gait are explained on the Gaits page, but here's a summary of how it's used in Chinese.

Each syllable is written in a square that measures 3x3 "cells" the size of a Shwa vowel. In this square are arranged the following elements :

  1. The Initial consonant (marked as yellow "I" below), combined with any following Medial to form a ligature
  2. The Tone (marked in white or red below). The Rising and Falling accents are written with a semicircular tail to make them taller. Syllables with no tone use a double semicircle.
  3. The Vowel (marked as green "V" below)
  4. The Coda (marked as blue "C" below): offglide, consonant or Break

The Initial + Medial ligature always fills the entire lefthand column, establishing a rhythm. If there's no initial, just the medial is written. If there's no coda, a Break is used in its place, so that there is always a visible coda. The position of the accent, vowel and coda depend on the tone:

The -ur finals in the fourth column above are written with both finals. The accent, with no tail, is written next to the vowel:

The -ngr finals in the last column above are written with a reduced nasal sign written next to the vowel:

Syllables within a word are separated by Breaks, but the Breaks aren't visible in Character gait, except when a coda is missing (as in Sichuan below). Words are separated by spaces. Writing is horizontal, from left to right. Here are some examples:

Putting it all together, why don't you try reading a sentence?

知者不言, 言者不知

© 2002-2018 Shwa shwa@shwa.org 17feb18