In addition to the sounds described above, most languages use supersegmental features which vary the volume (loudness), musical pitch and timing of sounds. We'll describe them in that order.
English is a good example of a language with stress: some syllables are pronounced louder, at higher pitch and held longer than they otherwise would be. English words usually have one stressed syllable : the native stress falls on the first syllable of a word, but imported words often have stress on the next-to-last (penultimate) syllable. "Small" words like articles and common prepositions and conjunctions often have no stress, as if they were part of the surrounding words.
In Shwa, stressed vowels are written high, hanging from the top of the line. To type them, you press the vowel key, followed by the Space key (while for low vowels you press Space before the vowel sign).
Here's how high vowels are used :
Many languages also use tones to vary the musical pitch of vowels. Shwa spells tones using small accent marks over or under the vowels. There are three of them :
Let me show you an example of how these accents are used to write tones. In Chinese, there are four contour tones, and a "fifth" tone consisting of no tone. Here are examples:
|中文||Pinyin||Tone Number||Tone Description||Sound||Shwa Tone Name||Shwa|
|妈||mā||1st tone||Level tone||High Level tone|
|麻||má||2nd tone||Rising tone||High Rising tone|
|马||mǎ||3rd tone||Dipping tone||Low Level tone|
|骂||mà||4th tone||Falling tone||High Falling tone|
|吗||ma||"5th" tone||Neutral tone||No tone|
As you can see, the accents are written above low vowels to indicate a low tone, and below high vowels to indicate a high tone. it's the position of the vowel, not the accent, that makes a tone high or low. Also note that the level tone marks are used for peaking and dipping tones (which are usually written with a circumflex or caret ∧ and a caron or breve ∨).
Here's how this system extends to some other well-known tonal languages:
|Cantonese||Upper Departing (3rd)|
|High Rising tone||Chinese||Rising (2nd)|
|Cantonese||Upper Rising (2nd)|
|High Level tone||Chinese||High (1st)|
|Hong Kong Cantonese||Upper Level (1st)|
|High Falling tone||Chinese||Falling (4th)|
|Guangzhou Cantonese||Upper Falling (1st)|
|Low Falling tone||Chinese||3rd before a different tone|
|Cantonese||Lower Level (4th)|
|Low Level tone||Chinese||Dipping (3rd)|
|Cantonese||Lower Departing (6th)|
|Low Rising tone||Chinese||3rd before another 3rd tone|
|Cantonese||Lower Rising (5th)|
Here's how the accents are used :
|Yùhgwó go-go dōujáu saai, bīngo léih Hēunggóng a?|
The accents are also used to indicate vowel voicing, the vowel equivalent of the phonation discussed on the More Voices page. Most languages only distinguish among their vowels using "major" features: high-mid-low, front-back, round-compressed-spread, short-long (or tense or advanced tongue root), nasalization and tone, and you already know how to write those in Shwa. But some languages also distinguish vowels based on pharyngealization, stridency or phonation: there are creaky, hollow, stiff, slack, harsh and breathy vowels.
As with consonants, Shwa doesn't try to capture the details. In languages which display any of these features, we use the three accents for them, reserving the unaccented letters for "normal" vowels. The spelling is standardized as follows:
|slack, harsh or breathy||Rising|
|pharyngealized, stiff, hollow, or creaky (stød)||Falling|
|strident, voiceless, doubly marked or anything else||Level|
As far as I know, there's no ambiguity within languages, although of course the accents mean different things in different languages.
|< Suffixes||Punctuation >|
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